Specifications for Sunflower seed

Purity 99% min
Moisture 7.5% max
Admixture 1% max

Specifications of Maize(Corn)

Purity 99% min
Moisture 14% max
Broken 2%
Starch Content 80% Max

Specifications of Niger seeds 

Moisture 9 % Max
Crude Protein 16.00%
Crude Fat 32.00%
Crude Fiber 7.0%.
Oil Content 34% Min.

Specification of Safflower seed :

Moisture 8% (Max)
Purity 99%(Min)
Foreign Matter 1% (Max)

VEGETABLE PROTEINS: The seeds are processed to remove the oil, the residues, which may contain from 5 percent to less than 1 percent of fat and 20 to 50 percent of protein, are marketed as animal feeds. These high-protein feeds supplement inexpensive roughages, cereal grains, and other low-protein feeds in order to furnish the protein and amino acids needed for efficient growth or production.

MILLING BY PRODUCTS: Large quantities of animal feed are by-products or residues from commercial processing of cereal grains for human consumption. Common milling by products as livestock feeds are wheat bran, rice polish, crushed maize, oil cakes, soya bean meal, hulls from soya bean and various others legume seeds and city by-products such as brewer’s grains.


a)    Pasture: Pasture grasses and legumes, both native and cultivated, are the most important single source of feed for ruminants such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. During the growing season they furnish most of the feed for these animals at a cost lower than for feeds that need to be harvested, processed, and transported. Hundreds of different grasses, legumes, bushes, and trees are acceptable as feeds for grazing animals.

b)    Hay: Hay is produced by drying grasses or legumes when they approach the stage of maximum plant growth and before the seed develops. This stage has been shown to give maximum yields of digestible protein and carbohydrates per unit of land area. The moisture content is typically reduced below 18 percent in order to prevent moulding, heating, and spoilage during storage.

c)     Silage: Silage is made by packing immature plants in an airtight storage container and allowing fermentation to develop acetic and lactic acids, which preserve the moist feed. The initial moisture concentration of the forage should be between 50 and 70 percent, depending on the type of silage. Corn, sorghums, grasses, and sometimes leguminous forages are used in making silage.

d)    Root crops: Root crops are used less extensively as animal feed than was true in the past, for economic reasons. Beets (mangles), rutabagas, cassava, turnips, and sometimes surplus potatoes are used as feed. Compared with other feeds, root crops are low in dry-matter content and protein; they mostly provide energy.

e)    Straw and hulls: Quantities of straw remaining after the harvesting of wheat, oats, barley, and rice crops are used as feed for cattle and other ruminants. The straws are low in protein and very high in fibre; digestibility is low. Straw is useful in maintaining mature animals when other feeds are in short supply, but it is too low in nutrition to be a satisfactory feed for extended periods unless supplemented with other feeds that supply the protein, digestible energy, and minerals needed for growth and production.